It is called the Andean states the
region of South America cut in the Andes, a
mountain range that stretches from north to south on the
west coast of South America. Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador,
Peru, Bolivia and Chile are cut countries the Andes
Mountains, which make up Andean America.
In Andean America there are three landscapes with
different climates and vegetation: The Andes Mountains; the
coastal plains (on the shores of the Pacific Ocean ) and the
eastern plains (Amazonian lowlands). The climate varies
according to the distance from the Cordillera: it can be
tropical, desert, equatorial, Mediterranean or temperate.
The inhabitants of Andean America are predominantly
mestizo, with Spanish and indigenous descent, although
Ecuador and Peru are exceptions, since in these countries
the majority are indigenous. The official language in the
Andean countries is Spanish, and the predominant religion is
Catholic, which according to Silva (2006, p. 72), "reflects
Most of the population is concentrated on the plateaus
around the Andes or on the coastal plains, predominantly in
urban areas, which worsens the living conditions of a large
part of the population of these countries, which are
The economy of the Andean countries is
based on primary activities, such as: mining, fishing,
agriculture and livestock. In relation to mining, the main
resources found are: Petroleum (Ecuador, Colombia and
especially in Venezuela); lead and silver (Peru); copper
(Chile); tin, bauxite and gas (Bolivia). Fishing is
highlighted in Ecuador, Colombia and mainly in Peru. Family,
or subsistence, agriculture is practiced among the poorest
peasants, who plant with few resources. In contrast to
subsistence agriculture, commercial agriculture uses modern
techniques, and focuses on large properties whose products
are export-oriented. Livestock, both of cattle and sheep, is
of low productivity, and does not reach the domestic market
(SILVA, 2006, p. 72).
Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador and Peru are member countries
of the Andean Community of Nations (CAN),
which is an Economic Bloc formed after the Cartagena
Agreement in 1969. Chile left the bloc in 1977, although it
remains an associated country. Venezuela left the Andean
Community in 2006.
Latin America is made up of countries that have a
neo-Latin language, that is, French, Portuguese and Spanish.
With more than 42 million square kilometers, the American
continent is the second largest on the planet. Its
population is approximately 925.2 million inhabitants, who
are distributed in 35 countries and in several territories
that do not have full political autonomy, such as, for
example, French Guiana.
The most common division of this large continental
portion is based on the geographical position of American
lands on the globe: North America, Central America and South
America. However, the American continent can also be divided
into Anglo-Saxon and Latin America, being established
through language and historical and cultural elements.
The colonization process in the American continent was
promoted by the Europeans, with emphasis on the Spanish,
Portuguese, British, Dutch and French, and one of the main
inheritances of this process is the language. In this sense,
the nations colonized by countries whose linguistic trunk is
Germanic (English), belong to Anglo-Saxon America. Latin
America, on the other hand, is made up of countries that
have a neo-Latin language (French, Portuguese and Spanish).
However, despite being former colonies of German-speaking
countries (English and Dutch), Suriname, Jamaica, Trinidad
and Tobago, among others, are considered countries in Latin
America, as they have similar historical and cultural
characteristics to those of Latin Americans. Americans.
Another important element for this division refers to the
geopolitical and socioeconomic aspects, since Canada and the
United States are the only superpowers on the continent,
strengthening this unification in Anglo-Saxon America. Latin
American nations, on the other hand, are in the process of
economic development and most of them have several social
Therefore, the countries of Latin America are distributed
among the three geographic regions of the continent: Mexico
(North America) and all the nations of Central and South
America, which have similar historical and cultural ties.
Countryaah.com for lists of countries in Central
America, North America and South America.