Mexico. In March, Mexican media were able to view video footage of Mexico City Finance Secretary Gustavo Ponce and the mayor’s former private secretary René Bejarano involved in corruption deals. The scandal cast a deep shadow over the mayor himself, Andrés Manuel López Obrador, who intends to run in the 2006 presidential election of the opposition party PRD (Partido de la Revolución Democratica). López Obrador, who leads the polls, accused the government of trying to sabotage his election campaign.
According to CountryAAH, the total population in Mexico is 128,932,764 people in 2020. Another of Mexico’s major parties, the PRI (Partido Revolucionario Institucional), which held the presidential power uninterrupted between 1929 and 2000, won great success in the regional and local elections held during the year. PRI won governor elections in several important states such as Chihuahua, Oaxaca, Veracruz and Durango. In addition, the PRI won the mayor posts in Tijuana and Oaxaca. In the state of Chiapas, where the Zapatist guerrilla led a low-intensity uprising against the government for ten years, PRI won in 56 of 118 municipalities, including the state capital Tuxtla Gutiérrez. The election campaign in Oaxaca was particularly dirty. One candidate was murdered, and then-sitting Governor José Murat (PRI) failed in a murder attempt to win the party’s candidate.
On June 27, a mass demonstration was held in Mexico City against the increased crime. It was the largest manifestation of its kind in Latin America, gathering close to 300,000 participants, most dressed in white.
1982 The economy collapses
During President José López Portillo’s tenure (1976-82), new important oil deposits were found, increasing the country’s dependence on the United States. It became the most important oil supplier to its neighbor in the north. Yet rising oil revenues were unable to reduce rising inequality, and as the economic crisis hit developed capitalist countries in 81-82, it hit Mexico hard. The bourgeoisie passed through $ 82 billion over the country for fear of devaluation, the country’s foreign exchange reserves depleted, and in September, the outgoing government responded by nationalizing the entire country’s banking system and by halting payments on the country’s foreign debt, which was Brazil ‘s largest in the world – 80 billions of dollars. The Mexican move was close to getting the financial capitalin the United States to collapse. A number of major banks had lent their equity to Mexico many times, and only because the United States government intervened and took over the obligations were they saved from bankruptcy. (See also: The Debt Crisis).
Shortly after the collapse of Mexico’s economy, Miguel de la Madrid (1982-88) took over the presidential post. He became responsible for implementing the structural adjustment policy now imposed by the IMF. Government subsidies were cut down, as were public spending in general, public investment restructured, and a kind of dual exchange rate system was introduced. The economic tightening this time hit not only the peasants and the working class, but also the middle classes who had to note a drastic decline in real income. The consequence was widespread dissatisfaction with the PRI, and the party ever cashed its first election defeat. The party’s candidates were beaten in the major cities and the capital by the June 83 municipal elections.
The crisis continued through 83. Inflation was rising, real wages were falling, government spending was falling, and so was production, while unemployment was rising. In 85, foreign investment rose by $ 1.5 billion – 2/3 of it from the United States. The heaviest burden was still the external debt, which with $ 96 billion annually demanded 12 billion in interest and repayments.
In September 85, the capital was hit by a very powerful earthquake that cost more than 20,000 lives. The already serious situation was made even worse. The United States also cut its oil imports from Mexico, forcing the country to seek other sources of income. One of these was tourism. Another so-called “maquiladoras” – foreign industrial companies established along the border with the United States except for taxes and social security taxes. The system had been established as early as the 70’s, but had stagnated until the collapse of 82, but the crisis had reduced Mexican workers’ wages to 1/10, and it was now very attractive for North American companies to place their labor-intensive production right on the other. side of the border.
For years, North American Senator Helms conducted a smear campaign against the Mexican government so as not to curb illegal Mexican emigration to the United States and to be involved in the rising drug trade.
The economic picture in 87 was mixed. While surplus on the trade balance and foreign exchange reserves increased, employment in the industry fell by 7% during the first four months of the year, and inflation in 86, 106%, in August 87 reached 134%.
At the same time, the political situation became more difficult for PRI, which among other things. was made responsible for the election fraud during the municipal elections in 86, and in the professional field an independent national organization – Mesa de Concertación Sindical was established. A serious challenge for the official CTM under the full control of the PRI.