Mongolia. According to CountryAAH, the total population in Mongolia is 3,278,301 people in 2020. The June parliamentary elections were a great success for the non-socialist Fatherland Democratic Alliance. Having previously held only four of Parliament’s 76 seats, the alliance claimed 36, as many as the ruling ex-communist Mongolian revolutionary party. The alliance claimed that it also had the support of three party-free members and demanded government power. Both sides accused each other of cheating. After two months of stalemate, they agreed to form a coalition government, in which Democratic Alliance leader Tsakhiagiyn Elbegdordj was appointed prime minister, a post he previously held for eight months in 1998. Outgoing Prime Minister Nambaryn Enkhbayar now became president of parliament. Two places claimed by the Democratic Alliance remained unoccupied for the time being.
In 1989 and 1990, a number of opposition groups began to emerge openly. One of the most active – the Democratic Union of Mongolia – was officially recognized in January 1990. In March, the more frequent actions aimed at the government triggered a new crisis in the ruling party. Parliament took several reform steps and adopted, inter alia, a constitutional amendment that removed the term “the leading force of society” about the Communist Party. Furthermore, a new electoral law was passed, although the existence of several political parties was not yet recognized.
At the end of March, demonstrations were held in Ulan Bator demanding the National Assembly dissolved. Opposition leaders declared the reforms inadequate and demanded that legislation be passed that allowed all political parties to present their candidates.
Despite the presence of oil, minerals, cattle, timber and wool, Mongolia has a shortage of money, machinery and trained manpower to exploit these resources. Especially after the 50,000 Soviet technicians and advisers had been pulled out of the country and aid stopped.
For decades, it was forbidden to utter the legendary figure of Djenghi Khan’s name. Today, he has also begun to be rehabilitated as an authentic expression of the Mongol pride and tradition that had hitherto been denounced as an expression of open “nationalism”.
Despite 65 years of Soviet assistance, the country has an economy that still carries strong features of the nomadic society, in parallel with increasing urbanization. A significant portion of the population of the capital Ulan Bator lives in tents with inlet electricity and water supply from a common water pump.
During the first three months of 1991, Mongolia recorded a sharp reduction in foreign trade. The balance of payments deficit reached $ 250 million. At the same time, the shortage of food, medicine and fuel increased. The country’s currency tughrik was devalued from 7.1 to 40 for a US dollar. State revenues fell abruptly, while spending rose steadily.
In May 1991, Prime Minister Dashiyn Byambasuren announced the launch of a policy to stimulate foreign investment, the opening of a national stock exchange, the privatization of two-thirds of state property, the abolition of public price controls and changes in the banking system. However, the government at the same time declared that the reforms were very complicated and needed time to work.
The Mongols have an average annual income of $ 100, and their lives have become considerably more difficult than in previous times. The population is not only impatient to see the results of the announced reforms, but also concerned about the scandals within the public administration.
Following an official investigation, the President of the Central Bank of Mongolia, Zhargalsaikhan, in December 1991, was arrested along with a group of businessmen, accused of scamming $ 82 million, or a significant portion of the country’s foreign exchange reserves. At the same time, Deputy Prime Minister Dabaadorjiyn Ganbold was accused of secretly approving the transfer of 4,400 kilograms of gold to a branch of the British company Goldman Sachs as collateral for a $ 46 million loan that had primarily gone to cover losses.