1990 Serbian nationalism explodes
the total population in Serbia is 8,737,382 people in 2020.
The federal government blamed nationalist and extremist
separatist forces for being encouraged from abroad to seek
Kosovo's detachment from Serbia and Yugoslavia. Many Serbs
and Montenegrins left the province. The conflict cost killed
and wounded, mutual diplomatic accusations flew back and
forth between Belgrade and Tirana, and in March 90, Kosovo's
head of government, Jusuf Zejnullahu withdrew. At the same
time, there were tensions in other republics due to rising
activism among Muslim and Catholic groups.
At the same time, inflation was running low. In 1986 it
was 90%. In 1989, it was four-digit. When the LCY analyzed
the economic situation and the ethnic conflicts, the party
came to the conclusion that they expressed more profound
contradictions. During these years, the implementation of
several government corruption lawsuits showed that the
system was failing. The Communist parties in Slovenia and
Croatia made it clear that they would break out of the LCY.
At a January 90 congress, the LCY abandoned its political
monopoly, as it had under the Constitution, and asked
Parliament to take steps to draft a new constitution that
was not based on a one-party system or the leadership role
of the Communist League in all spheres of society.
At the first multi-party elections since World War II -
in April 90 - nationalist groups in all republics - except
Serbia and Montenegro - won. They all wanted the
cancellation of the federation or the formation of a
Since 1989, Yugoslavia's last prime minister, neo-liberal
Croat Ante Markovic, had undergone structural reforms to
curb the development of the crisis. The country eliminated
the duty of 90% of its imports, increasing it by 11.9%,
while exports grew much slower (5.6%). This led to a slight
increase in GDP of 0.6% and in industrial production 0.9%.
Agricultural production rose 5.2% and real wages rose 26.6%.
At the same time, inflation fell slightly: from 1,255.7% in
1989 to 587.6% in 1990.
Yugoslavia hoped that Western Europe's renewed interest
in Eastern Europe could help it in liberalizing its economy,
but throughout 89 it did not receive a single dollar in
foreign aid while having to pay about US $ 3.7 billion to
its foreign lenders.
From 1990, the situation deteriorated dramatically.
Industrial output fell by 18-20% in Serbia and 13% in
Montenegro, while the Federation's external debt reached US
$ 16.3 billion. Of this, Serbia and Montenegro accounted for
The economic chaos led to rapidly rising social tensions
while the state apparatus was in disarray. In this
situation, two options were contrasted. One was to implement
a decentralization that exempted the rich northern republics
from funding the development of the poor southern. This
model was put forward by the renovated communist and
president of Slovenia, Milan Kucan. The second model
consisted of strengthening the central power and deepening
solidarity within the federation. This model was put forward
by Slobodan Milosovic as president of Serbia and leader of
the Socialist Party of Serbia - the former Serbia Communist