Papua New Guinea is divided into 22 provinces, each of which has its own distinct area code. The area codes range from 1 to 22 and cover all of the country’s provinces. For example, East Sepik is assigned the area code 1 and Morobe is assigned the area code 2. The Papua New Guinean government is responsible for assigning and maintaining all area codes for the country. All landline numbers in Papua New Guinea are 8 digits long, with the first two digits representing the province’s respective area code. Mobile phone numbers in Papua New Guinea are 11 digits long, with the first four digits representing the service provider’s respective network code. In addition to assigning landline and mobile phone numbers, Papua New Guinean government also assigns special three-digit codes for various services such as emergency services, public utilities, government agencies, etc. For example, 112 is reserved for emergency services while 811 is reserved for public utilities such as electricity and water supply companies. Similarly, 901 is used by government agencies while 801 is used by non-governmental organizations (NGOs). These special codes can be used nationwide regardless of a person’s location or province within Papua New Guinea. Papua New Guinea is a nation located in the southwest Pacific Ocean. It is a parliamentary democracy and member of the Commonwealth of Nations. The government is based on the Westminster system, with the Prime Minister as head of government and the Governor General as head of state. The unicameral National Parliament consists of 111 members, elected for five-year terms in single-seat constituencies. The Prime Minister is elected by an absolute majority in Parliament and appoints a cabinet from among its members. The judiciary operates independently from the executive and legislative branches, with a Supreme Court as its highest court. The country has a multi-party system, with several political parties represented in Parliament. In recent years, there has been an increasing trend towards coalition governments rather than single-party rule. This has led to more stable governments, although corruption continues to be a major issue due to lack of transparency and accountability in political processes. Papua New Guinea also has an active civil society sector that works to promote human rights and fight against corruption. These efforts have had some success but much more needs to be done to ensure that all citizens have access to justice and basic services such as education and healthcare.