According to ALLCITYCODES.COM, Russia is a large and diverse country, and it is divided into 83 federal subjects, each of which has its own area code. The area code of Russia is a two-digit number used to identify the region from which a call originates. While some area codes are shared by multiple regions, most are specific to one region and are used for both landline and mobile phone numbers. In addition to the two-digit area code, each Russian phone number also contains a three-digit prefix that indicates the city or town from which the call was made. For example, if someone in Moscow dials 8-495-123-4567, the 8 indicates that the call was made from Russia while 495 identifies Moscow as its location. The most populous region in Russia is Moscow Oblast, with an estimated population of around 7 million people. The main area code for Moscow Oblast is 495; other cities in this region may have different area codes but all begin with 495. In addition to Moscow, other major cities such as Saint Petersburg (812), Yekaterinburg (343), Novosibirsk (383), Kazan (843) and Nizhny Novgorod (831) all have their own unique two-digit area codes. In addition to these major cities, there are many smaller towns and villages throughout Russia that also have their own unique two-digit area codes. For example, Murmansk Oblast has an area code of 8152 while Kaliningrad Oblast has an area code of 4012. Similarly, Irkutsk Oblast has an area code of 3952 while Sverdlovsk Oblast has an area code of 343. Each region’s administrative center also typically has its own unique three-digit prefix within its respective two-digit area code; for example, the administrative center of Murmansk Oblast has a three-digit prefix of 815 within its 8152 two-digit area code. Russia is a semi-presidential republic, and the current President of Russia is Vladimir Putin. The government of Russia is a federal government composed of three branches: legislative, executive and judicial. The legislative branch consists of the Federal Assembly, which includes two chambers – the State Duma and the Federation Council. The executive branch is made up of the President and the Government of Russia, which consists of the Prime Minister and his cabinet ministers. The judicial branch includes both federal and regional courts. In addition to these branches, Russia also has a number of political parties that are active in national politics. These political parties include United Russia, A Just Russia, Liberal Democratic Party, Communist Party, Yabloko and Patriots of Russia among others. PETSINCLUDE: Features public policy of Russia.