According to ALLCITYCODES.COM, the area code of Kazakhstan is +7. It is typically written as 0xx-xxxxxx when dialing a Kazakh phone number from within the country. When making an international call to a Kazakh number, one must first dial the international access code (001 in the US), followed by 7 for Kazakhstan’s country calling code, and then followed by the 0xx-xxxxxx area code without any additional zeros or symbols. For example, to make a call to a landline in Almaty from outside of Kazakhstan, one would dial 001-7-0xx-xxxxxx. When dialing from inside of Kazakhstan, no international access codes are required; simply dial all eight digits without any additional zeros or symbols. This includes both landlines and mobile phones. Cell phones in Kazakhstan typically begin with either a 7 or 8 followed by 7 digits; for example 7 xxxx xxxx or 8 xxxx xxxx. In addition to providing access to landlines and mobile phones within Kazakhstan, the +7 area code can also be used for VoIP services such as Vonage and SkypeOut. These services allow users to make calls over the Internet at very low rates compared to traditional landline telephone services. When making calls through VoIP services like SkypeOut, one must first dial 00 followed by 7 and then enter their full 8 digit phone number they wish to reach; for example 001-7-8xxxxxxxx for a call to a mobile phone in Almaty from outside of Kazakhstan. Area codes are an important part of Kazakh telecommunications infrastructure as they allow people both inside and outside of the country to easily make international calls with ease from their landline or mobile phones. By understanding how this system works – including how different types of numbers should be formatted when making calls – individuals can ensure that their international calls are successful and cost effective each time they use their phones abroad. Kazakhstan is a unitary presidential constitutional republic and the President of Kazakhstan is both the head of state and head of government. The executive branch is made up of the president, prime minister, and their appointed cabinet. The legislative branch consists of two chambers: the lower house, the Mazhilis, and the upper house, the Senate. The judicial branch is made up of a Supreme Court and other lower courts. Kazakhstan also has a Constitutional Council which is an independent body that oversees constitutional matters. Political parties are allowed to operate in Kazakhstan but they are heavily regulated by the government in order to prevent any one party from gaining too much power. The current President Nursultan Nazarbayev has been in power since 1989, making him one of the longest-serving leaders in Central Asia. PARADISDACHAT: Features public policy of Kazakhstan.