According to ALLCITYCODES.COM, the area code of Japan is +81, which is sometimes written as 0xx-xxxx-xxxx. This area code is used to call both landlines and cell phones within the country. When dialing a Japanese phone number from outside of the country, one must first dial the international access code (001 in the US), followed by the country calling code (81 for Japan), and then followed by the 0xx-xxxx-xxxx area code without any additional zeros or symbols. For example, to make a call to a landline in Tokyo from outside of Japan, one would dial 001-81-0xx-xxxx-xxxx. When dialing from inside of Japan, no international access codes are required; simply dial all eleven digits without any additional zeros or symbols. This includes both landlines and cell phones. Cell phones in Japan typically begin with either a 090 or 080 followed by 8 digits; for example 090 xxxx xxxx or 080 xxxx xxxx. In addition to providing access to landlines and mobile phones within Japan, the 81 area code can also be used for VoIP services such as Vonage and SkypeOut. These services allow users to make calls over the Internet at very low rates compared to traditional landline telephone services. When making calls through VoIP services like SkypeOut, one must first dial 00 followed by 81 and then enter their full 11 digit phone number they wish to reach; for example 001-81-090xxxxxxxxx for a call to a mobile phone in Tokyo from outside of Japan. Area codes are an important part of Japanese telecommunications infrastructure as they allow people both inside and outside of the country to easily make international calls with ease from their landline or mobile phones. By understanding how this system works – including how different types of numbers should be formatted when making calls – individuals can ensure that their international calls are successful and cost effective each time they use their phones abroad. Japan’s politics are based on a parliamentary system with a constitutional monarchy. The nation is divided into 47 prefectures, each of which have their own elected governor and legislature. The head of state is the Emperor of Japan, who holds a largely ceremonial role and is advised by the Prime Minister, who is elected by the National Diet. The Diet consists of two houses: the House of Representatives and the House of Councillors. The Prime Minister is typically appointed from members of the ruling party in the lower house. Japan has a multi-party system, with several parties represented in both houses. These include the Liberal Democratic Party (LDP), Komeito, Democratic Party for the People (DPP), and Japanese Communist Party (JCP). All parties must adhere to certain policies set by Japan’s constitution, such as pacifism and democracy. This ensures that all political decisions are made through consensus rather than through force or coercion. PARADISDACHAT: Features public policy of Japan.