Namibia. According to CountryAAH, the total population in Namibia is 2,540,916 people in 2020. The government indicated that it wanted to speed up land reform and that white landowners were under pressure to sell their land. The government assured that the change of ownership should take place under peaceful conditions. However, opposition leader Ben Ulenga warned that expropriation of the whites’ land would do great harm to both agriculture and black farm workers.
In November, Hifikepunye Pohamba was elected to succeed Sam Nujoma when he left power after 15 years in March 2005. Pohamba received 76% of the vote, while his party SWAPO in the parliamentary elections conducted simultaneously received 55 of 72 seats – as many as in the election 1999.
Despite the huge vote support, criticism of the former liberation movement’s way of ruling the country is increasing. In a report in August, the National Society of Human Rights noted a marked increase in the last twelve-month period of abusive statements by government representatives against white, sexual minorities, independent media and opposition politicians. The government was also criticized for wasteful use of public funds. According to abbreviationfinder, NA stands for Namibia in text.
In July, a Namibian-South African consortium signed an agreement to build a gas power plant in Kudu in southwestern N. The power plant will be ready in 2009 at a construction cost of just over US $ 1 billion, making it the largest investment in N’s history. The capacity is estimated at 1,600 megawatts, which can be compared with Namibia’s total capacity today at 393 megawatts.
One hundred years after the colonial army massacre of the gentlemen, the German government in August asked for forgiveness. Deputy Minister Heidemarie Wieczorek-Zeul said at a memorial ceremony that the massacres of 1904 would today be described as genocide. However, Germany is adamant about not paying any special damages to herero. Nearly 65,000 people were killed between 1904 and 1907, after herero revolted against German colonizers’ theft of their land.
Independent republic since 1990, the Namibia, at the 1991 census, counted 1,401,711 residents, with an increase of 35.7% compared to the previous census of 1981. The ethnic group by far the majority was that of the Ovambo (665,000) ; followed by the Kavango (124,000), the Herero and Damara (100,000 each), and the Nama (64,000). Also in 1991 the white population amounted to 85,000 residents and constituted over half of the urban population, mainly centralized in the capital Windhoek (150,000 residents). Agriculture and fishing contribute to the formation of the gross domestic product to the extent of 13.9% (1990), employing 37% of the workforce. The territory, ecologically fragile and undermined by a severe drought that lasted from 1978 until the mid-1980s, is suitable, in most of its extension, only to livestock, whose products make up more than 90% of the commercial income of the agricultural sector. The colonial legacy still has a decisive impact on the organization of agriculture, which is divided into three sectors: about 4,000 large commercial breeding farms, almost all owned by whites; 20,000 farms in the hands of African breeders, inserted in the reserves located in the central-northern part of the country, and 120,000 black families who practice a poor subsistence polyculture, having just 5% of arable land, in the extreme northern region.
The coastal waters of the Namibia are one of the potentially richest fishing areas in the world, but the fish stocks have been impoverished by a robbery fishing, practiced by the national fleet but above all by foreign fleets in respect of which the Namibia before the independence could in no way be redeemed, since the illegal occupation of the territory deprived the state of the exclusive right to fish within the economic zone within 200 nautical miles from the coast, recognized by international law.
The greatest contribution to the formation of the gross domestic product comes from the mining sector, which contributes to forming more than three-quarters of the value of exports. Alongside the traditional production of diamonds (about 20% of the world total), Namibia has intensified in recent years the exploitation of its reserves of uranium ores. The Rossing mine, the largest in the world – albeit of a relatively low level of extraction – went into production in 1976. In 1990, some 3200 tonnes of uranium were mined and sold, on the basis of long-term contracts, to countries of the Community. European Economy, Japan, Taiwan. Namibia is at the top of the world ranking of tin and lithium reserve holders.
The development of the manufacturing sector is hampered by fluctuations in the availability of basic raw materials for export (mainly livestock for meat and fish), the narrowness of the internal market, the high costs of energy and transport and the lack of a class. local business. The transport infrastructure is virtually controlled by South Africa, the only country with which the Namibia is connected by rail, while Walvis Bay, the only deep-sea port, through which 90% of the country’s maritime trade passes, remains under South African jurisdiction.
Although endowed with natural resources capable of ensuring the economic prosperity of the new independent nation, and although it has already obtained technical assistance and support for development projects from various European and North American countries (including Germany and the United States), Namibia is likely to continue to be economically dominated by South Africa for several years to come.