Mali 2004

Mali People

Yearbook 2004

Mali. The total population in Mali is 20,250,844 people in 2020. Prime Minister Ahmad Ag Hamani resigned at the end of April without further explanation after a year and a half on the post. He was succeeded by the party-less Transport Minister Ousmane Issoufi Maïga, a Soviet-trained economist, who had previously been, among other things. finance minister and sports minister.

In May, Mali’s first local elections were held with the participation of all parties – more than 90. Although Mali internationally has a good democratic reputation, voter interest is weak. The current President Amadou Touré runs a consensus policy with a broad co-government without any real opposition.

The United States sent military instructors to northeastern Mali to train the army in counter-terrorism. Mali also got off-road vehicles and other desert war equipment from the United States, which fears that the country will be infiltrated by Islamic fundamentalists from North Africa. Northeastern Mali is an unstable area of ​​ethnic contradictions, which occasionally leads to armed conflicts, but straw robbery and other crime also pose a problem.

Mali People


Inflation rate 1.80%
Unemployment rate 7.9%
Gross domestic product (GDP) $ 41,220,000,000
GDP growth rate 5.40%
GDP per capita $ 2,200
GDP by sector
Agriculture 41.80%
Industry 18.10%
Service 40.50%
State budget
Revenue 764 million
Expenditure 828 million
Proportion of the population below the national poverty line 36.1%
Distribution of household income
Top 10% 25.8
Lower 10% 3.5
Industrial production growth rate 1.50%
Investment volume
National debt 35.40% of GDP
Foreign exchange reserves
Tourism 2014
Visitors 168,000
Revenue $ 178,200,000

During the year, Mali, as well as large parts of northwestern Africa, were subjected to unusually large grasshopper attacks. About 700,000 hectares were estimated to have been hit, but the authorities thought they had saved the most fertile areas south of the 14th latitude by establishing a chemical control barrier. Nevertheless, 15–25% of the expected harvest was estimated to have been destroyed.

Economic conditions

The development of structures linked to the trafficking economy, favored by the connection with the Senegalese port of Dakar (the construction of the Dakar-Bamako railway dates back to 1924), allowed the country to emerge among those in the interior. After independence, Mali believed to find a way to development by adopting a collectivist socio-economic organization, which ended up causing a paralysis of economic activity, for the sole benefit of a plethora of bureaucratic apparatus. The economic picture has improved since the 1990s, after the adoption of reforms with the support of international financial institutions. But the development of the Mali is hindered by several elements of weakness: the isolation, the lack of infrastructures, and above all the aridity of the environment, linked to the progressive desertification of the Sahel. Severe and prolonged episodes of drought, which lasted for several years in a row, among other things, they have triggered conflicts between farmers and ranchers over the use of Niger waters and accelerated the exodus of multitudes left without resources to the cities. Agriculture, which is practicable only in the coastal areas of Niger (5% of the whole territory), represents, together with livestock, the main resource of the country. Cereal crops (millet, rice, sorghum and corn) destined for local food are flanked by commercial ones: especially cotton (300,000 t of seeds and 160,000 t of fiber in 2006; Mali is the third African producer after Burkina Faso and Egypt), peanuts and sugar cane. The inland delta of the Niger River is home to one of Africa’s oldest and most important irrigation projects south of Sahara, the Office du Niger, started by the French in 1932, with the dual objective of providing for the cotton needs of the French textile industry and of ensuring local food self-sufficiency by giving impetus to irrigated rice cultivation. Breeding is of great importance (7.7 million cattle and over 20 million goats and sheep). Among the resources of the subsoil, gold is particularly noteworthy, the production of which, in significant growth, has come to represent the most important source of export earnings. Mali is particularly vulnerable to fluctuations in cotton prices on world markets, and has a high degree of dependence on foreign aid. Manufacturing production is essentially limited to the processing of agricultural products and some other modest activities (textile, mechanical, chemical, cement plants, shoe factories etc.). The trade balance is chronically passive, and is weighed down by dependence on foreign countries for energy supplies and industrial products. The roads (15,000 km, of which 3000 are asphalted) are mostly passable only seasonally. The main airports are those of Bamako and Mopti.