The population, which in 1940 was 423,330 residents, Has risen, according to an estimate of 1947, to 525,477 (excluding military and naval personnel), of which 10,761 Hawaiians, 67,082 born to marriages of foreigners with Hawaiians and 171,983 Japanese (of which 139,848 born in the islands and citizens). Of the various islands, Hawaii had 70,871 inhabitants in 1946, Maui 45,336, Kauai 34,689 and Oahu 358,911. The capital, Honolulu, had 268,913 inhabitants in 1947. (For the Japanese attack see pearl harbor).
Sugar production reached 6.1 million q. in 1946 and 8.5 in the first 11 months of 1947. Production of canned pineapple and pineapple gravy was also on the rise again. Imports were valued at $ 198 and $ 165 million in 1944 and 1945 respectively; exports, 85 and 84. For the financial year 1945-46, income was 28,065,241, expenses of $ 23,060,169. As of June 30, 1947, the public debt had fallen to $ 10,996,000.
In the 1940 elections, the population expressed a desire for the islands to be incorporated as a state into the union. After the Second World War, a bill was drafted for this purpose, approved by the United States House of Representatives, and transmitted to the Senate on June 30, 1947. The archipelago will thus constitute, after Alaska, the 50th among the United States.
According to mcat-test-centers, the main city of the island is Hilo, whose development is due to the port, the best on the east coast. Here the tourists go down to Kilauea. The population of the city was about 19,468 residents in 1930. A railway line connects Hilo with Paauilo in the north and another with Kilauea in the West. Characteristic of the surrounding sugar plantations are the large canals (aqueducts) that carry the cane from the fields to the sugar factories. Kailua and Hookena, two small ports on the west coast, are used especially for the export of coffee.
The island of Maui has an area of 1885 sq km, measuring 74 km. in length and 48 in width. It is formed by two distinct volcanoes, joined by a low and flattened isthmus: of these the largest and most eastern, Haleakala, reaches 3058 m. in height. Its crater, one of the largest in the world, is 11km long, 3m wide and 600m deep, but it is not active. It has two gigantic fractures, from which the lava has descended to the sea without filling the crater as has happened in many cases. Within the main crater there are numerous secondary cones, some of which formed by ashes and scoriae. Curious plants, similar to aloe (Argyroxiphium), are found only in this locality.
Lahaina, a small town on the relatively arid northeastern coast, is surrounded by sugar cane plantations irrigated by aqueducts from the mountain valleys. The city was originally the capital of the islands and was of great importance during the whale fishing period. The central isthmus and the adjacent slope of the Haleakala are irrigated by means of canals, the first of which was built in 1877, which stretch for almost 80 km. in the mountain area.
Puunene is home to the largest sugar refinery in all of the Hawaiian Islands, which produces 60,000 tons of sugar during good years. Kahului, on the northern part of the isthmus, is Maui’s main port. Respectively to O. and to SO. of Maui are the islands of Lanai, whose main resources result from the pineapple and kahulani plantations.
Molokai Island is about 64km long. and wide 16. In the western part it is formed by a low volcanic cone and in the eastern part by a deeply fractured volcano, the Kamakou (2711 msm). The side of this, facing the wind, has been eroded by the rains and the sea giving rise to large sheer cliffs and ruins. A lava flow descends from these inaccessible cliffs reaching into the sea: on it is the famous Kalaupapa leper colony which in 1927 welcomed 654 lepers. Livestock farming is the main industry of the island, but it is not of great importance.
Kauai it is the smallest of the four main islands. It consists of a large volcanic mass, Weialeale, with an almost circular outline, which rises to 1600 m. An accentuated erosion characterizes the eastern side as in the other islands. Its valleys, deeply engraved, are among the most impressive in the world: of these the Wainiha is perhaps the best known; its waters are carried through an artificial tunnel to the plantations below. From the top of the mountain, the Holokele Cañon descends towards the southwest up to the gorge and the town of Waimea. A continuous series of cane plantations line the north coast of the island, while rice occupies much of the inland plains. Waimea is home to one of the most important rice mills on the islands. Lihue, on the east coast, is the capital.
To the west of Kauai is the island of Niihau, which is sparsely inhabited and of no great importance.