Denmark. Denmark’s military operation in Iraq left its mark on both foreign and domestic policy during the year. Prime Minister Anders Fogh Rasmussen, from the bourgeois Venstre, made a visit in southern Iraq in February, where about 500 Danish soldiers were monitoring an area outside Basra under British command. Afterwards, the prime minister said he had received confirmation of the real fact that Denmark was participating in the US-led coalition’s war to overthrow Saddam Hussein’s regime in Iraq. But the criticism of Denmark’s Iraqi efforts was harsh. The prime minister was accused of misleading the Folketing and the Danish people when in 2003 he claimed that there were weapons of mass destruction in Iraq. With the help of leaks from an officer in the defense intelligence service, two journalists at Berlingske Tidende wrote that the prime minister had no factual basis for his claims.
In March, the officer was fired and threatened with prosecution for disclosing documents that threatened Danish interests, while the journalists were suspected of passing the information on. In April, however, the government surprisingly decided to release parts of the disputed secret documents with reference to the fact that an extraordinary situation had arisen, where the government’s credibility was questioned. The critics then commented on a wording in one of the reports that there was no safe information that Iraq had operational weapons of mass destruction. The Social Democratic opposition believed that the government manipulated the reports to better suit the decision to participate in the Iraq war.
According to CountryAAH, the total population in Denmark is 5,792,213 people in 2020. Defense Minister Svend Aage Jensby (Venstre) struck back by revealing secret information from the parliamentary committee that examined the intelligence service. Jensby wanted to show that the opposition in 2003 had in reality agreed with the government that Iraq’s alleged weapons arsenal posed a threat. Jensby’s action received harsh criticism from the opposition, which demanded his resignation and in April Jensby chose to leave his post. The same month, a Danish businessman was kidnapped outside Baghdad in Iraq and later found murdered.
Danish royalism had happy days when Crown Prince Frederik married Mary Donaldson from Australia in May. But the joy turned to disappointment when the court announced a few months later that Prince Joachim and Princess Alexandra had decided to divorce.
In the June elections to the European Parliament, the Social Democratic opposition emerged. Former Prime Minister Poul Nyrup Rasmussen (s) was the most knowledgeable among the new Danish EU parliamentarians.
In August, a comprehensive trial was initiated against suspected hashish sellers from the Christiania sanctuary in Copenhagen. Following a strike earlier in the year, the police had 23 suspects and the legal postponement was expected to continue until after New Year.
The coalition government with Venstre and the Conservative agreed in November with the support party Dansk Folkeparti on the budget for 2005. lower taxes on beer and wine, which was expected to further increase the Swedes’ purchases of alcoholic products in Denmark. The budget also included measures to realize the Danish People’s Party’s demands for faster rejection of asylum seekers who have refused their applications.
The extra-parliamentary left
From the early 1960’s, a left-wing movement started outside and partly across parties. It emerged on many levels and with different groups as a starting point, and thus also with different goals and means. Among the most important were the Vietnamese movement, which originated from opposition to the US war in Southeast Asia and in opposition to the Danish government’s lack of criticism of the war. A precursor to the Vietnam movement and other anti-imperialist movements was the Atomic Campaign in 1960-62, which focused specifically on the stationing of nuclear weapons on Danish soil. (It appeared in the 1990’s that the Danish government had already, in the early 1950’s, given its tacit acceptance for the placement of North American nuclear weapons on the US military base in Thule.).a. by linking the Vietnam War with the fight against the international, US dominated monopoly capitalism and imperialism. The Vietnamese movement was also divided, but as a whole it was a broadly composed movement which, in particular, raised and activated large parts of the youth. Experience gained from this work led to the establishment of support committees for Third World countries in the late 1960’s and campaigns against fascist regimes and dictatorship states in southern Europe – initially Greece, Portugal and Sparesidents
The anti-imperialist movement and the left-wing movement of the working class in the second half of the 1960’s must also be seen as a backdrop to, and connected with, the student revolt and other anti-authoritarian settlements. They advanced in 1968 and over the course of a few years reshaped the decision-making process and to a certain extent teaching at the universities. At the same time, the boom and changes in production processes, combined with large post-war births led to the rapid expansion of the education system. This was especially true of the upper secondary and HF education, the upper secondary schools and universities. For example. Roskilde and Aalborg University Center were started.
Under the KVR government (1968-71), a governing law was passed that abolished professor violence in universities and higher education, gave greater influence to teachers and, as something new, to the technical-administrative staff and students. The law was partly a consequence of the widespread protests against the authoritarian leadership and teaching structures, but also of the need to implement educational and organizational reforms to drastically increase the capacity of the education sector.
Copenhagen – cinemas
Live pictures were shown in Copenhagen for the first time in 1896 in the amusement establishment Copenhagen’s Panorama, but the first real cinema was Kosmorama, which opened in Østergade on 17.9.1904. In the following decade, large cinemas were built, which, in order to lend respect to the popular mass medium, called themselves cinema theaters and imitated the interior design of the theaters with foyers, wardrobes, ornamented balconies and carpets in front of the screen. The largest was the Palace Theater with 3,000 seats, which was inaugurated in 1912 in the old main railway station.
Permission to operate a cinema was granted by the local police chief, but in 1922 the licensing system was enacted under the Ministry of Justice; it protected cinemas from competition and secured the state significant revenue from taxes. The production companies were prevented from building cinema chains; they could only be licensed for a single cinema and in return had to commit to producing 2-4 films of “appropriate quality” annually. Most of the lucrative grants were given in recognition of honorable citizens and artists.
The five cinemas under this scheme were Palads (Nordic Film), Palladium (Palladium), Saga (Saga Film), Kinopalæet (ASA) and Triangel Teatret (Flamingo Film).
Cinemas had good conditions until the mid-1950’s. In the 1930’s and 1940’s, Copenhagen had up to 44 cinemas with annual sales of DKK 20 million. tickets. From the mid-1950’s, the decline that lasted until 1987 began., Øster- and Nørrebro and in the 1970’s a number of cinemas in the center. During the same period, as a counterpoint to television, only two new cinemas had been built, Tre Falke Bio in Frederiksberg in 1958 and Imperial Bio in 1961.
In the 1970’s, a radical change took place in the cinema environment, because the Film Act of 1972 abolished the licensing system (see Film Act). Actual cinema chains now emerged, and after a foreign model, multi-cinemas were built, which with many small halls under one roof could rationalize operations with a joint operator and ticket office. The first were ABCinema + D and Cinema 1-8 in 1973 (both closed in 1991), and in 1978 Palads, which had moved from the railway station square to Axeltorv in 1917, rebuilt its hall into 12 new ones and later added another five. Dagmar, Grand and Palladium followed the same pattern, and with the temporary growth of small, more artistically ambitious art cinemasas Delta Bio, Posthus Teatret, Klaptræet, Husets Biograf, Vester Vov Vov and Park Bio, Copenhagen had in 1987 reached 72 halls, ie approx. 30 more than in the heyday, but with an annual ticket sales of approx. 1/6, namely ca. 3.8 million
Since then, the number of halls has dropped to approx. 50, while ticket sales have stabilized at almost DKK 4 million. (2004). The better occupancy rate is a result of the fact that current cinemas have adapted to compete with the comfort of the living room and at the same time define themselves through repertoire and environment; Imperial Bio with approx. 1500 seats is the premiere cinema for the season’s expected audience magnets, Dagmar, Empire, Grand, Vester Vov Vov and Park with accompanying café life is home to the most serious part of the repertoire, and CinemaxX, built with ten halls in 2000, is integrated with Palads in business and restaurant centers.