Algeria, Arabic Al-Djazair [-d ʒ a-], officially Al-Djumhurijja al-Djazairijja ad-Dimukratijja ash-Shabijja [-d ʒ um- -d ʒ a- – – ʃ a-], German Democratic People’s Republic of Algeria, State in North West Africa, with (2018) 42.2 million residents; The capital is Algiers.
According to andyeducation, there is general compulsory schooling between the ages of 6 and 15. The school system is divided into a nine-year primary school and a three-year secondary school with two types of school, general education and schools specializing in major subjects. Attending school is free of charge. The language of instruction is Arabic, in Berber regions also Tamazight; French is usually the first foreign language. The secondary school diploma (Baccalauréat) entitles the holder to study at a university. For vocational training after attending primary school, there are vocational schools and technical colleges with a three-year training period. There are around 50 universities and independent university institutes, including 27 universities. The oldest university is that of Algiers (founded in 1879).
In the service sector (2017) 40.2% of the workforce generated 44.1% of GDP. Trade, the public service, communication technology, education and health care are of particular importance here.
Tourism: In contrast to its neighbors Morocco and Tunisia, tourism only plays a minor role in Algeria. After the state of emergency was imposed in 1992, it came to an almost complete standstill. Since 2001, the government has been intensifying its efforts to promote bathing, business and conference tourism in particular, as well as Saharan tourism and cultural and sports tourism. The main attractions include the mountain fortress Beni Hammad, the rock paintings of Tassili N’Ajjer, the Red Oasis in Timimoun, the Roman ruins of Djemila, the ruined city of Tipasa and the Kasbain Algiers. Most of the 3.63 million visitors (2015) were Algerians from abroad.
Algeria has good transport links in the coastal area and partly also in the Atlas Mountains. Towards the south, the transport network thins out considerably. Only the mining areas located there can be reached via well-developed traffic routes. The railroad is the most important mode of transport for long-distance and mass transport. The most important rail connection is the stretch parallel to the coast, which crosses the country from the Tunisian to the Moroccan border and connects to all the major port cities. The road network is also concentrated in northern Algeria. Most of the settlements here are accessible by mostly paved roads. Three major north-south routes lead through the Sahara to the border with Mali and Niger. Another road runs parallel to the Moroccan border to Tindouf on the border with Mauritania.
Important port cities are Algiers, Annaba and Oran for cargo handling and Arzew and Bejaïa for oil and natural gas. Most of the foreign trade is carried out by ship. Air traffic is of great importance domestically (over 100 airfields and runways). The main international airports are in Algiers, Oran and Constantine.
Blida, El Boulaïda [- bu-], capital of the Vilayat of the same name in Algeria, (2008) 292,300 residents.
Blida is located 50 km southwest of Algiers in the Mitidja plain, at the foot of the high-precipitation Blida Atlas, on the Algiers – Oran railway line. The city is a market center in the midst of irrigated flower, vegetable, citrus and vine crops. The manufacturing sector includes the food industry and perfume production. There has been a university since 1989.
Blida was founded around 1530 and settled with Spanish moriscos who were irrigation experts. In 1760, 1825 and 1867 the city was destroyed by earthquakes.
Annaba, formerly French Bône [bo ː n], capital of the Wilajat of the same name in northeast Algeria, with 376,200 residents, fourth largest city in the country. Annaba has a university (founded in 1975).
Annaba is located in the protected western part of Annaba Bay. Phosphate, zinc, copper, wine, grain, vegetables, citrus, wool and cork are exported via the port; Fishing port. In addition to the manufacturing industry (fertilizer factory, metal processing), trade as well as the finance and construction industries are of great importance. A cable car leads from Annaba into the mountainous hinterland. There is a ferry port (connection to Marseille), an international airport; Bathing beaches. In El-Hadjar, 10 km south of Annaba, there is an iron and steel mill and a pipe mill.
Excavations near Annaba uncovered ruins of ancient Hippo Regius from Roman times (1st century AD) (theater, forum, thermal baths). This originally in the 12th century BC. Phoenician trading post founded in the year 201 BC. BC. Residence of the Numidian kings, later Roman. In early Christian times, Augustine was bishop in Hippo Regius. After the conquest by the Vandal (431) and the reconquest by Byzantium (533) it fell to the Arabs in 697. After that, the three districts of Hippo Regius grew together into one city. As a pirate base, it was used by Genoese and Pisans in 1034 and by the Norman Roger II in 1153 ., King of Sicily, captured. Since 1160 Annaba belonged to the Almohads, since about 1250 to the Hafsids, 1533–35 and 1540–1830 it was Turkish, on June 26th, 1832 it was conquered by the French.