Switzerland. According to
CountryAAH, the total population in Switzerland is 8,654,633 people in 2020.
The Swiss stopped a referendum in September
in a proposal to make it easier for foreigners to obtain
citizenship. Voters voted no to facilitate young
second-generation immigrants to get Swiss passports and to
let the third generation get it automatically at birth. The
no campaign was run by the xenophobic People's Party SVP.
About one fifth of the population are foreign nationals in
Switzerland, who have the most stringent rules in Europe on
the matter. In June, Parliament also tightened up
immigration laws. This means that citizens from EU and EFTA
countries are given priority; People from other countries
are allowed to immigrate only if they have the desired
professional knowledge in the agricultural, construction,
medical or tourism sectors.
Several referendums during the year concerned social and
ethical issues. Voters approved research on human fetal stem
cells, decided that Swiss women - like the last in Europe -
should have the right to statutory parental leave, and voted
to allow gay couples to receive the same tax terms and
social benefits as married heterosexual couples.
In February, an air traffic controller was responsible
for traffic when two aircraft collided over southern Germany
in 2002. The man, who was Danish, was stabbed to death in
his home in Zurich. Shortly thereafter, a Russian was
arrested, whose wife, daughter and son were among the 71
people killed in the plane crash.
The Swiss air traffic controller company Skyguide later
assumed responsibility for the crash, after investigators
determined that it was caused by incorrect orders from the
lone air traffic controller. The investigators criticized
Skyguide for both technical problems and the low staffing.
In 1712, a Protestant victory - achieved in the second
Battle of Villmergen - put an end to the religious struggles
and established that the cities in the midst of an
industrial development had supremacy. Switzerland was at
that time the continent's most industrialized country. An
industry based on homework, which completely changed the
life of the country.
In the 18th century, one popular uprising followed
another against the urban oligarchy and for amendments to
the constitution. In March 1798, the Old Federation
collapsed and the Helvetian Republic was declared a rooted
sovereignty of the people. From the Unity Republic to the
Federal Constitution of 1848 - which marked the definitive
victory of liberalism in Switzerland - the coups, popular
uprisings and civil wars followed. The new covenant pact led
to the establishment of two legislative assemblies, with the
aim of guaranteeing the rights of small Catholic cantons.
The transfer to the state of the exclusive right to
collect customs and stamp coins, as well as the unification
of measuring and weighing units, created the economic space
demanded by the trade and industrial citizenship. The
Federal Constitution of 1848 removed the obstacles that
slowed the capitalist development of the country.
The nepotism and concentration of capital for the benefit
of small groups, created a growing popular opposition to the
institutional system. The Federal Constitution of 1874
partially picked up on this dissatisfaction and introduced
the referendum as a source of direct democracy.