South Africa. In the April parliamentary elections, the
ruling African National Congress (ANC) received 70% of the
vote, giving the party 279 of the 400 seats. Thus, the ANC
strengthened its already strongly dominant position. The
main opponent Democratic Alliance received 12% and 50 seats.
The New National Party (NNP), heir to the ruling party of
the apartheid era, was almost completely wiped out and later
decided to join the ANC.
CountryAAH, the total population in South Africa is 59,308,701 people in 2020.
Party leader Marthinus van Schalkwyk was rewarded with
the post of Minister of the Environment. However, President
Thabo Mbeki, who was re-elected for a new five-year term,
dismissed Interior Minister Mangosuthu Buthelezi, after
which his zulup party Inkatha Freedom Party (IFP) left the
government. Nevertheless, the ANC and IFP were able to
conclude agreements on co-government in KwaZulu/Natal, one
of the two provinces where the ANC did not get its own
Despite the ANC's superior electoral victory, there was
clear wear and tear in the cooperation between the party and
its two closest partners, the national organization COSATU
and the communist party SACP. COSATU strongly criticized the
government's "silent diplomacy" against the regime in
neighboring Zimbabwe, after a trade union delegation
investigating the situation in Zimbabwe had been expelled
from there. The trade union movement also criticized the
ANC's economic distribution policy, which according to
COSATU mainly favors a small elite of blacks with close ties
to the party.
In September, more than 700,000 civil servants went on
strike in what was described as the largest labor market
conflict in South Africa since the abolition of apartheid.
The currency, the rand, reached its highest level in five
years in July. Nevertheless, economic growth in the first
half of the year rose to around 3% on an annual basis from
1.9% in 2003, and the strong rand helped counteract the
inflationary pressure that would have caused high oil prices
otherwise. High prices for export goods favored growth.
In April, a few weeks before the parliamentary elections,
after many years of bitter debate, the state began
distributing free brake medication to HIV-infected people.
The ambition was that 50,000 of the country's more than 5
million infected people would have access to the drugs
within a year and that 1.4 million would be covered in 2009.
But already after just over a month, the dividend was
reduced, citing the fact that the production of the
medicines did not meet the demand, a task that was rejected
by the pharmaceutical industry. The government decided to
suspend the medication of HIV-infected children for the time
1994 First democratic elections in the history of South
The first multi-ethnic elections in South Africa's
history were conducted on days 26-29. April 1994. The
turnout was 87%. The ANC got 63% of the vote, the
Nationalist Party 20% and Inkatha (IFP) 10%. With the
Freedom Front, the extreme right wing gained 2%. A
National Unity Government was formed with the participation
of the 3 largest parties. It allowed the former government
finance minister and the head of the National Bank to remain
on their posts.
The political structures of apartheid had been removed,
but the economic and cultural framework remained unchanged.
Black workers earned 9 times less than whites, and the
unemployment rate for the two groups was respectively. 33%
and 3%. Child mortality among the black population was 53%,
while that of whites was 1%.
Mandela's first step after forming government was to
propose free medical treatment for all children under the
age of 6 and pregnant women, the introduction of school
meals for all schoolchildren, and the electrification of
350,000 homes. At the same time, he promised that by 1999
2.5 million new jobs would be created and 1 million new
However, the reconstruction and development program only
progressed slowly in 1995. This was due to lack of funding
and bureaucratic problems. New guidelines for teaching were
drawn up. In October, plans were announced that over the
following 18 months, 3.5 million South Africans would have
access to running water. The first budget prepared by the
Unity Government alone allocated 47% of the budget for
social services, education 26%, investment in new housing
doubled and military spending reduced. Agriculture Minister
Derek Hanekom drew up and initiated an ambitious land
reform. Guidelines were drawn up for conditions in the labor
market, which included: guaranteed the right to strike and
created new discussion forums in the workplace. The number
of labor disputes decreased compared to previous years.
In January, the ANC withdrew the promise of immunity to 2
former ministers and 3500 police officers. A promise that
had been given before the election. Their cases were to be
investigated by the Truth and Reconciliation Commission. The
trial of a former police chief responsible for 121 killings,
abductions and scams brought new information about police
incitement to political violence under the apartheid regime.
Prominent members of Inkatha had received payments from the
security police. A report by the Goldstone Commission to
President de Klerk in 1994 confirmed this information. In
June, the IFP Vice President was arrested for murder in
The strikes and accusations of racism within the police
led the chief of the corps to resign. His successor, George
Fivaz, declared that reforms would be implemented -
including a demilitarization. At the same time, concerns
about rising crime increased. Still, the new Constitutional
Court abolished the death penalty.
The unit government suffered from a number of internal
tensions that were compounded by the November local
elections. Inkatha withdrew from Parliament and the
Constitutional Assembly, claiming that the government wanted
to establish total hegemony. In turn, the ANC accused the
IFP of promoting KwaZulu/Natal's secession, threatened to
suspend the financing of the region and sent military and
police forces to the province. In any case, the political
violence in the province was reduced - from 300 killings a
month before the election to 70 in the middle of 95.
The November 95 local elections were favorable to the ANC
in almost the entire country. In May 96, the Nationalist
Party withdrew from the government to join the opposition -
for the first time since 1948.
The National Assembly passed a new constitution that, in
the Government's view, consolidated the transition to
democracy. During the drafting of the new text, thousands of
workers and traders conducted demonstrations, the result of
which was the deletion of a section that gave employers the
right to lockout in their businesses. That same
year, the government passed a law legalizing abortion until
the 12th week of pregnancy.