Pakistan. One of Pakistan's national heroes, "the father
of the Pakistani nuclear bomb," Abdul Qadir Khan, was fired
in January from his post as government adviser after
admitting to passing nuclear weapons technology to Iran,
Libya and North Korea. Following the disclosure, a worldwide
network of illegal nuclear technology trade began to emerge.
President Pervez Musharraf pardoned Qadir Khan, according to
analysts because a trial could have given dangerous public
backlash to the government and also revealed its own
involvement in technology smuggling.
Throughout the year, the security forces fought
intensively against suspected members of al-Qaeda and the
Taliban in clan-controlled areas in the border areas against
Afghanistan. A large number of suspected terrorists were
killed and revealing documents were seized. In September,
Pakistan's most wanted terrorist, Amjad Farooqi, was killed
for involvement in the assassination of American journalist
Daniel Pearl in 2002 and an attempted murder of President
Musharraf in 2003.
CountryAAH, the total population in Pakistan is 220,892,351 people in 2020.
Sectarian violence shook Pakistan on several occasions.
About 40 people were killed and more than 100 injured in an
attack on a Shiite procession in Quetta in March. In
Karachi, some 70 people were killed in Sunni extremist
attacks against Shia during the early summer. Four people
were sentenced to death in December for an attack on a Shia
mosque in 2002.
However, Pakistan's international position was
strengthened. The United States designated Pakistan as
"close ally outside NATO", a position that provides great
opportunities for military procurement and research
cooperation as well as advantageous loans. At the same time,
the Commonwealth granted Pakistan re-entry five years after
Musharraf's takeover of power, citing "major democratic
progress". In July, Musharraf visited Sweden in the hope of
attracting investors and being able to enter into arms
Prime Minister Zafarullah Khan Jamali resigned in June
without further explanation, however, according to analysts,
probably following a schism with the president. He was
provisionally succeeded by PML-Q's leader Chaudhry Shujaat
Hussain, pending the appointment of respected Finance
Minister Shaukat Aziz in parliament. After winning a swiftly
held election election, Aziz took over government power at
the end of August and also retained the finance minister
post. Despite promises to the contrary, President Musharraf
decided to retain the post of commander-in-chief. He had the
parliament enforce a special law that gave the head of state
the right to maintain another public office. A newly
established National Security Council, for the first time,
gave the military a statutory influence over politics under
formal civil rule.
Contacts with India intensified during the year with
bilateral talks in a number of areas. A number of confidence
building agreements were signed. President Musharraf
publicly suggested in October that both sides should
consider new ways to resolve the Kashmir issue, such as by
allowing the UN to administer parts of a demilitarized
Kashmir, that India and Pakistan could govern the mountain
country jointly or that Kashmir could become independent.
However, the Indian response was met.
The country was still in deep economic crisis. Despite
Prime Minister Sharif's aversion to foreign interference in
the country's economy, in July 2013 he had to accept a $ 5.3
billion IMF relief package. US $. In September, it was
followed by another $ 6.7 billion package. US $ and IMF
requirements for privatization of 31 state enterprises.
However, the biggest challenge facing the Sharif government
is the security situation in the country. In September,
Sahrif accused NATO and US military actions of being the
cause of terrorism in the country. He declared that he would
enter into a civil-military partnership with the country's
military, to bring military and civil society to the same
level. At the same time, he declared his willingness to
enter into unconditional negotiations with the Taliban,
which he described as a negotiating counterpart - not as
terrorists. Pakistan's Taliban responded again by demanding
immediate ceasefire, releasing all prisoners of military
withdrawal from the Taliban. At the same time, the movement
brought a roadside bomb to blast that killed a Pakistani
general. Chief of Staff Pervez Kayani warned the prime
minister against pursuing a capitulation strategy against
the Taliban, thereby marking the deep divide between
government and military in handling the country's
Negotiations between the government and the Taliban broke
down in February 2014, after the Taliban killed 23 border
soldiers. The situation worsened further after the Taliban
in June attacked the international airport in Karachi. 36
were killed, including the 10 attacking Taliban and at least
18 wounded. The attackers were not really Pakistani Taliban,
but were from the Uzbek Islamic Movement allied with the
Taliban. Immediately after the attack, the Pakistani
military again responded with aerial bombardment of Taliban
positions in the tribal areas along the border with
Afghanistan and subsequently Taliban positions in North
Waziristan were bombed.
In June 2014, PTI's Imran Khan announced that PTI would
conduct a "long march" (Azadi march), starting on August 14
in protest of the scams at the 2013 parliamentary elections.
On August 6, Khan demanded that the government be dissolved,
the prime minister resigned, Parliament dissolved and the
Supreme Election Commission set aside, unless the march was
to be carried out. Of course, that didn't happen. PTI
therefore launched its march in Lahore on August 14, and it
reached Islamabad on August 16. The PTI's elect then
announced that they were withdrawing from the National
Parliament and the Parliaments of Punjab and Sindh. The
government tried through negotiations to avert the conflict
In the late summer, a number of Pakistani Taliban groups
swore allegiance to Islamic State (Daesh), after which they
had conquered Mosul in Iraq and proclaimed a Caliphate. The
incidents underscored the split between al-Qaeda and IS.
Pakistani Malala Yousafzai was awarded the Nobel Peace
Prize in October along with Indian child rights advocate
Despite several months of military offensive, the Taliban
was not broken. On November 2, a Taliban suicide bomber
burst into the air at the Wagah border crossing in Punjab,
India. 60 were killed and over 100 injured.
On December 16, 7 members of the Pakistani Taliban
attacked a school for children of officers in Peshawar,
killing 148 - most of them children. It was the bloodiest
attack to date in Pakistan and was condemned from all sides.
Including from the Taliban in Afghanistan. In response to
the massacre and after consultation with the other political
parties, Sharif drew up a 20-point national action plan,
which included: consisted in continued executions of
convicted terrorists, the establishment of special military
courts for a 2-year term and the regulation of the Koran
schools (Madrasas). Already 3 days after the Peshawar
massacre, authorities executed two death sentences in
Punjab. Another 2 were executed 2 days later. 500 were
sitting on Pakistani deaths, convicted of terror-related
In May 2015, Chinese President Xi Jinping was on a state
visit to Pakistan. The two countries signed agreements worth
$ 31 billion. US $ on the development of Pakistan's
infrastructure and trade between the two countries. Among
other things. China must import gas and oil from Iran
through pipelines to pass through Pakistan.
Throughout 2015, Saudi Arabia put great pressure on
Pakistan to bring political and military to its deputy wars
against Iran - including The sheep war against Yemen.
Pakistan ended by saying no to Saudi Arabia's call for
military participation in the Iran settlement. In December,
Saudi Arabia announced that it had formed a "Muslim
counter-terrorism association" consisting of 47 Muslim
countries - including Pakistan. The Pakistani Foreign
Minister subsequently commented on the Saudis' remarks,
noting that the first time he heard about the Saudi
association was when he read the "news" in the newspaper.