Mongolia. According to
CountryAAH, the total population in Mongolia is 3,278,301 people in 2020.
The June parliamentary elections were a great
success for the non-socialist Fatherland Democratic
Alliance. Having previously held only four of Parliament's
76 seats, the alliance claimed 36, as many as the ruling
ex-communist Mongolian revolutionary party. The alliance
claimed that it also had the support of three party-free
members and demanded government power. Both sides accused
each other of cheating. After two months of stalemate, they
agreed to form a coalition government, in which Democratic
Alliance leader Tsakhiagiyn Elbegdordj was appointed prime
minister, a post he previously held for eight months in
1998. Outgoing Prime Minister Nambaryn Enkhbayar now became
president of parliament. Two places claimed by the
Democratic Alliance remained unoccupied for the time being.
In 1989 and 1990, a number of opposition groups began to
emerge openly. One of the most active - the Democratic Union
of Mongolia - was officially recognized in January 1990. In
March, the more frequent actions aimed at the government
triggered a new crisis in the ruling party. Parliament took
several reform steps and adopted, inter alia, a
constitutional amendment that removed the term "the leading
force of society" about the Communist Party. Furthermore, a
new electoral law was passed, although the existence of
several political parties was not yet recognized.
At the end of March, demonstrations were held in Ulan
Bator demanding the National Assembly dissolved. Opposition
leaders declared the reforms inadequate and demanded that
legislation be passed that allowed all political parties to
present their candidates.
Despite the presence of oil, minerals, cattle, timber and
wool, Mongolia has a shortage of money, machinery and
trained manpower to exploit these resources. Especially
after the 50,000 Soviet technicians and advisers had been
pulled out of the country and aid stopped.
For decades, it was forbidden to utter the legendary
figure of Djenghi Khan's name. Today, he has also begun to
be rehabilitated as an authentic expression of the Mongol
pride and tradition that had hitherto been denounced as an
expression of open "nationalism".
Despite 65 years of Soviet assistance, the country has an
economy that still carries strong features of the nomadic
society, in parallel with increasing urbanization. A
significant portion of the population of the capital Ulan
Bator lives in tents with inlet electricity and water supply
from a common water pump.
During the first three months of 1991, Mongolia recorded
a sharp reduction in foreign trade. The balance of payments
deficit reached $ 250 million. At the same time, the
shortage of food, medicine and fuel increased. The country's
currency tughrik was devalued from 7.1 to 40 for a
US dollar. State revenues fell abruptly, while spending rose
In May 1991, Prime Minister Dashiyn Byambasuren announced
the launch of a policy to stimulate foreign investment, the
opening of a national stock exchange, the privatization of
two-thirds of state property, the abolition of public price
controls and changes in the banking system. However, the
government at the same time declared that the reforms were
very complicated and needed time to work.
The Mongols have an average annual income of $ 100, and
their lives have become considerably more difficult than in
previous times. The population is not only impatient to see
the results of the announced reforms, but also concerned
about the scandals within the public administration.
Following an official investigation, the President of the
Central Bank of Mongolia, Zhargalsaikhan, in December 1991,
was arrested along with a group of businessmen, accused of
scamming $ 82 million, or a significant portion of the
country's foreign exchange reserves. At the same time,
Deputy Prime Minister Dabaadorjiyn Ganbold was accused of
secretly approving the transfer of 4,400 kilograms of gold
to a branch of the British company Goldman Sachs as
collateral for a $ 46 million loan that had primarily gone
to cover losses.