Mexico. In March, Mexican media were able to view video
footage of Mexico City Finance Secretary Gustavo Ponce and
the mayor's former private secretary René Bejarano involved
in corruption deals. The scandal cast a deep shadow over the
mayor himself, Andrés Manuel López Obrador, who intends to
run in the 2006 presidential election of the opposition
party PRD (Partido de la Revolución Democratica). López
Obrador, who leads the polls, accused the government of
trying to sabotage his election campaign.
CountryAAH, the total population in Mexico is 128,932,764 people in 2020.
Another of Mexico's major parties, the PRI (Partido
Revolucionario Institucional), which held the presidential
power uninterrupted between 1929 and 2000, won great success
in the regional and local elections held during the year.
PRI won governor elections in several important states such
as Chihuahua, Oaxaca, Veracruz and Durango. In addition, the
PRI won the mayor posts in Tijuana and Oaxaca. In the state
of Chiapas, where the Zapatist guerrilla led a low-intensity
uprising against the government for ten years, PRI won in 56
of 118 municipalities, including the state capital Tuxtla
Gutiérrez. The election campaign in Oaxaca was particularly
dirty. One candidate was murdered, and then-sitting Governor
José Murat (PRI) failed in a murder attempt to win the
On June 27, a mass demonstration was held in Mexico City
against the increased crime. It was the largest
manifestation of its kind in Latin America, gathering close
to 300,000 participants, most dressed in white.
1982 The economy collapses
During President José López Portillo's tenure (1976-82),
new important oil deposits were found, increasing the
country's dependence on the United States. It became the
most important oil supplier to its neighbor in the north.
Yet rising oil revenues were unable to reduce rising
inequality, and as the economic crisis hit developed
capitalist countries in 81-82, it hit Mexico hard. The
bourgeoisie passed through $ 82 billion over the country for
fear of devaluation, the country's foreign exchange reserves
depleted, and in September, the outgoing government
responded by nationalizing the entire country's banking
system and by halting payments on the country's foreign
debt, which was Brazil 's largest in the world - 80 billions
of dollars. The Mexican move was close to getting the
financial capitalin the United States to collapse. A number
of major banks had lent their equity to Mexico many times,
and only because the United States government intervened and
took over the obligations were they saved from bankruptcy.
(See also: The Debt Crisis).
Shortly after the collapse of Mexico's economy, Miguel de
la Madrid (1982-88) took over the presidential post. He
became responsible for implementing the structural
adjustment policy now imposed by the IMF. Government
subsidies were cut down, as were public spending in general,
public investment restructured, and a kind of dual exchange
rate system was introduced. The economic tightening this
time hit not only the peasants and the working class, but
also the middle classes who had to note a drastic decline in
real income. The consequence was widespread dissatisfaction
with the PRI, and the party ever cashed its first election
defeat. The party's candidates were beaten in the major
cities and the capital by the June 83 municipal elections.
The crisis continued through 83. Inflation was rising,
real wages were falling, government spending was falling,
and so was production, while unemployment was rising. In 85,
foreign investment rose by $ 1.5 billion - 2/3 of it from
the United States. The heaviest burden was still the
external debt, which with $ 96 billion annually demanded 12
billion in interest and repayments.
In September 85, the capital was hit by a very powerful
earthquake that cost more than 20,000 lives. The already
serious situation was made even worse. The United States
also cut its oil imports from Mexico, forcing the country to
seek other sources of income. One of these was tourism.
Another so-called "maquiladoras" - foreign industrial
companies established along the border with the United
States except for taxes and social security taxes. The
system had been established as early as the 70's, but had
stagnated until the collapse of 82, but the crisis had
reduced Mexican workers' wages to 1/10, and it was now very
attractive for North American companies to place their
labor-intensive production right on the other. side of the
For years, North American Senator Helms conducted a smear
campaign against the Mexican government so as not to curb
illegal Mexican emigration to the United States and to be
involved in the rising drug trade.
The economic picture in 87 was mixed. While surplus on
the trade balance and foreign exchange reserves increased,
employment in the industry fell by 7% during the first four
months of the year, and inflation in 86, 106%, in August 87
At the same time, the political situation became more
difficult for PRI, which among other things. was made
responsible for the election fraud during the municipal
elections in 86, and in the professional field an
independent national organization - Mesa de Concertación
Sindical was established. A serious challenge for the
official CTM under the full control of the PRI.