Kuwait. In May, the government proposed a legislative
amendment that would allow women to vote and stand for
election to Parliament. Under current law, these rights were
reserved for men over 21 years of age whose relatives lived
in K. before 1920. The bill passed to the country's emir,
Jabir al-Ahmad as-Sabah, who would decide on it before it
would be considered by Parliament. In 1999, Parliament voted
down a similar proposal that the Emir had approved.
the total population in Kuwait is 4,270,582 people in 2020.
Over 1,400 companies from 48 countries, including Sweden,
participated in the trade show "Rebuild Iraq 2004" in Mishref in mid-January. The fair, which focused on Iraq's
reconstruction, was presented, among other things. health
care products, water purification equipment and equipment
for the oil industry.
In 1962, a new constitution was introduced, which meant
the establishment of a 50-member National Assembly elected
individually (political parties were banned) by all men over
21 whose fathers or grandfathers had lived in the country
before 1920. Among the 826,500 Kuwaiti people living in the
country in 1990 (a minority among the population), according
to these rules, only 85,000 voters would be eligible if
elections had been held.
In 1966, Kuwait and Saudi Arabia resolved their border
problems, and the "neutral zone" that had been established
between the two countries was now shared equally between
them. In 1969, Kuwait's Central Bank was established, and in
1976 a social insurance law was passed, as well as a law
establishing a Reserve Fund for the Future Generations, to
which 10% of government revenue was to be spent.
Over the course of a few years, the oil radically changed
the look of the country. The Bedouins replaced their camels
with luxurious air-conditioned cars. Pearl fishing
disappeared and the entire population settled in the modern,
newly built cities, where the slender towers of the mosques
lie side by side with the shopping centers that had
displaced the old socos. The level of education and
the life of the population increased, but at the same time
all the manual labor and work in the oil industry was left
to migrant workers, who in 1970 corresponded in number to
the Kuwaiti population. In 1985, there were twice as many
migrant workers as Kuwaiti.
The Kuwaiti rulers quickly realized that so much wealth
in such a poor region could question their legitimacy. In
1961, therefore, the Arab Economic Development Fund was
established to channel "soft" loans and gifts to third world
countries. When the OPEC oil organization succeeded in
drastically raising the oil price in 1973, Kuwait's revenue
Most third world countries supported OPEC in the hope of
forcing the rich industrialized nations of the north to
agree to a " New Economic World Order " that would mean
better prices for third world export goods. But instead of
investing oil revenues in its own countries or in other
third world countries, the monarchs along the Persian Gulf
placed their fortunes in the western banks. In doing so,
they helped create a huge surplus capital in the
international financial market. This surplus capital was
lent to the Third World through the 1970s until the debt
crisis of 1982 caused this mechanism to collapse.
But compared to the other Gulf states, Kuwait was
generous with its wealth. In the late 1980s, Kuwait was the
country in the world that provided the most development
assistance - in terms of its national product.
However, prosperity did not prevent political conflicts.
In August 1976, the emir dissolved parliament. He died in
December 1977 and his son, Prince Jaber al-Sabah took over
the post. This printed a general election in February 1981.
Of the 50 seats in Parliament, 40 went to Sunni candidates
who were loyal to the royal family. The Shiite candidates
got 4 and the fundamentalist Islamic candidates 6 seats.
Only 6.4% of the country's population had the right to vote.
When the Iran -Iraq war broke out in 1981, Kuwait
formally took a neutral position, but in effect supported
Iraq with large gifts and loans. Like the other Gulf
Monarchies, Kuwait considered Iraq to be "the front line in
defense of the Iranian Islamic revolution."
From 1985, the National Assembly began to go against the
government's steps - control of the press, increases in
public services and educational reforms - and at the same
time criticized the emir's family for corruption. In August
1986, therefore, the emir dissolved the parliament and ruled
In the late 1980s, it was estimated that the Kuwaiti
Investment Office (KIO) had invested over $ 100 billion
outside the country. It owned hotels, art galleries and
properties in Europe and the US, as well as significant
holdings in major multinational corporations: 10% in British
Petroleum (BP), 23% in Hoechst, 14% in Daimler-Benz and 11%
in Midland Bank.