Congo. A series of serious incidents during the year
showed that the cooperation between the government and the
former rebel movements was very fragile. A few thousand
soldiers from the rebel movement RCD, which would have been
included in the army, in June took the city of Bukavu in
eastern K. The offensive was said to have been carried out
to prevent the persecution of banyamulenge, Congolese
Tutsis, which form a significant part of RCD's cadets.
President Joseph Kabila accused the government of Rwanda,
which was RCD's main ally, of being behind the attack. The
rebel troops soon left the city, but the attack was seen as
a serious threat to the peace process and also caused major
humanitarian problems in the area, since over 30,000 people
In Kinshasa, demonstrations erupted against the UN, whose
approximately 1,000 peacekeepers in Bukavu did not intervene
against the RCD's intrusion. The government's decision to
send 10,000 soldiers to the eastern border areas was seen in
Rwanda as a provocation and the neighboring army said it was
prepared to defend itself against an attack.
CountryAAH, the total population in DR Congo is 89,561,414 people in 2020.
A severe crisis ensued after the August assassination of
about 160 Congolese banyamulenge in a refugee camp in
Burundi. The Burundi and Rwanda governments accused
Congolese forces of participation and threatened
retaliation. Also, Hutu extremists from Rwanda were
suspected of participating in the massacre, for which the
Burundian hutumilis FNL took the blame. The UN began
patrolling the eastern K. border area in the fall in
cooperation with the Congolese army, but Rwanda rejected the
UN plan to voluntarily disarm the Rwandan Hutu extremists
who have bases in the eastern K. and threatened with its own
intervention, which raised concerns about a late fall. new
war in the region.
Data on two coup attempts in Kinshasa in March and June
caused headaches and were interpreted as possible
expressions of dissatisfaction with the peace process.
Reports of continued attacks on civilians came from the
northeastern Ituri region, despite the relatively strong
presence of the UN troops. Only one of six rebel movements
in the area obeyed the call to leave their weapons.
Information that UN employees have sexually abused K. was
very embarrassing for the World Organization.
Kabila's tenure formally expired in December 2016.
Already this spring, officials hinted that presidential
elections would be held in November. The Constitution
restricts the president from being able to sit for two terms
of office. The threat that Kabila would run for a third term
triggered violent demonstrations in Kinshasa in September
that killed 17 people. In an effort to reduce tensions, the
country's top electoral council then announced that the
election would not be held until early 2018. Before that, a
census should be conducted. In October and November
negotiations were held between Kabila and the opposition,
resulting in an agreement that Kabila could continue as
president until April 2018, but that the opposition should
in turn hold the post of prime minister. Kabila then
appointed Samy Badibanga as prime minister. Badibanga was
part of the opposition until 2011, but then took up his seat
in parliament contrary to the rest of the opposition. His
appointment as prime minister triggered new clashes in
Kinshasa that cost 40 people their lives. With the Catholic
Church as a mediator, a new agreement was reached at the end
of December, after which Kabila promised not to stand for
the third term and presidential elections to be held in late
After the September government crackdown on protesters in
Kinshasa, the ICC announced that the court would closely
follow the aggravated political situation.
Violence in the eastern part of the country continued
through 2016. More than 1,000 civilians were killed.
Government forces accounted for serious human rights
violations, as did the wide range of armed groups from the
Congo itself and neighboring countries active in the region.
Over ½ million had fled to neighboring countries and 1
million were internally displaced. The EU and the United
States sanctioned people in Kabila's inner circle, but
continued their economic activities in the Congo, which was
the source of the violence.
In March 2017, two UN experts, their interpreters and
drivers, were kidnapped in the Kasai province of eastern
Congo. They were found killed 2 weeks later. Through 2016,
the armed groups had increasingly gone on to kidnap
foreigners and Congolese to fund their activities.
In April 2017, Kabila appointed Bruno Tshibala to the
post of Prime Minister. Tshibala was arrested in October
2016 at Kinshasa airport, accused of organizing
demonstrations the month before. In November, he was