Bosnia and Herzegovina. The international community
clearly expressed their displeasure that the Bosnian Serbs'
leaders during the war, Radovan Karadžić, were still not
arrested. At the beginning of the year, the NATO-led SFOR
force conducted several raids in the Republic of Srpska
sub-republic, where he was supposed to be hiding. Karadžić
was suspected of genocide and called for by the UN Criminal
Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia.
CountryAAH, the Bosnian Serbs were widely accused of protecting Karadžić and other suspected war criminals. As a result, the
international envoy Paddy Ashdown in June dismissed 60
high-ranking Bosnians. Ashdown accused them of corruption,
of hindering the course of justice and of hindering Bosnia
and Herzegovina's efforts to approach the EU and NATO. As
the "High Representative" of the outside world, he had
far-reaching powers to intervene to secure the 1995 peace
In December, another nine Bosnians were deposed,
including six police officers. Prime Minister Dragan
Mikerević and Foreign Minister Mladen Ivanić resigned in
The Bosnian Serbs took an important step to appease the
outside world when the government of the Republika Srpska in
November apologized for the Srebrenica massacre. A domestic
commission had determined that up to 8,000 Muslim boys and
men were killed as the city fell into Serbian hands in 1995.
The task was well in line with previous international
investigations, but the Bosnian Serbs had not previously
acknowledged that any massacres had taken place.
Following demands from NATO, the slaying of the former
enemy armies in Bosnia and Herzegovina's two sub-republics
also continued. They decreased during the year from a total
of 19,800 to 12,000 men. Nevertheless, Bosnia and
Herzegovina did not join NATO's Partnership for Peace
program, a first step towards membership in the defense
alliance. Cooperation with the War Criminal Tribunal was
considered too inadequate.
In December, SFOR handed over the peacekeeping mission to
a newly formed EU force, including about 7,000 men.
According to the UNHCR, the millionth refugee returned
from the war years to his home during the summer. Almost
half of those returning came from abroad. There were still
over 300,000 internal refugees in Bosnia and Herzegovina and
more than half a million Bosnians abroad.
When municipal elections were held in October in both
republics, the dominance of the nationalist parties was
confirmed in most quarters. The election was held without
incidents, but the turnout was only 45%.